Literature 480: Studies in Literature and Culture
Cannibalism, Consumerism, and the Cultures of Cruelty
Dr. Abby Coykendall
Office Location: Pray-Harrold
~ or email for an appointment ~
Cannibalism, Consumerism, and the Cultures of Cruelty
In this class, we will investigate an especially horrific yet nonetheless especially intriguing archetype that recurs throughout Western literature, whether that literature be popular, canonical, mythological, or otherwise; namely, cannibalism. From Jonathan Swift’s “Modest Proposal” onwards, cannibalism has served as the trope of tropes to epitomize human cruelty. It has also served as the all too literal, all too human(e) justification for massive amounts of brutality and bloodshed via colonization; cannibalism being, of course, the quite contrived reason to exclude those of other races from the human species. Ironically, it is only by abdicating humanity from humanity itself that the West could requisition the souls, bodies, and lands of purported savages and “cannibals” to the colonial settlers in selfish pursuit of them. However, along with excusing flagrant inhumanity within and against humanity itself, cannibalism (or, at least, the allegation of cannibalism) has continued to exert fascination in contemporary (and very trendy) fiction and film, often serving as a salient allegory for the problem of evil. Think of William S. Burroughs’ Naked Lunch, Thomas Harris’ Silence of the Lambs, Anne Rice’s Interview with a Vampire, the real-life (and much romanticized) Jack the Ripper and Jeffrey Dahmer, as well as countless other dollar dreadfuls and nightly newscasts that unabashedly, yet ambivalently, spotlight the serial killer, the substance abuser, or even the multinational corporation preying indiscriminately on the best and the worst of humankind, all with such cavalier yet calculated an abandon.
Ultimately, whether it be in taking seriously the consumption (or threatened consumption) of babies and pets in fairy tales and children’s literature (“Jack and the Beanstalk,” “Hansel and Gretel,” Alice in Wonderland), or in frankly examining the zombie-esque commodification of culture in twentieth-century theory and cinema (Willy Wonka, Dawn of the Dead, as well as that beloved “opium of the people” Karl Marx), we will consider not only how violent, but also how versatile, this lone trope of cannibalism can be, especially once given the critical, concerted, and creative attention of bibliophiles like ourselves — reading being, no doubt, the one kind of cannibalistic consumption that each and every one of us shares in equal and exorbitant proportion. Along the way, we will ask ourselves a single overriding question, albeit from multiple points of view and in widely differing contexts: how does this trope of cannibalism mediate questions of otherness, the distinctions between flesh and food, animal and human, civilized and savage, and, most importantly, between “us” and “them.”
The following books are available at Ned’s bookstore (http://www.nedsbooks.com/emu/; 483-6400; 707 W. Cross St.), although additional copies may be available at other local bookstores:
v Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (Dover 1993; ISBN # 0486275434)
v William S. Burroughs, Naked Lunch (Grove 2004; ISBN # 0802140181)
Make sure to get the same editions pictured above even if you purchase the books online, where they may be significantly less expensive; otherwise, the differing page numbers will make it difficult, if not impossible, for you to follow along with class discussions. The most reliable way to get the correct edition is to search by ISBN number, a unique fingerprint of sorts for the book.
Most of the required texts are located online in the Halle library’s Electronic Reserves: http://reserves.emich.edu/. It is best to print out the Electronic Reserve materials every few weeks in advance from the multimedia computers on the first floor of the Halle library. These computers are more likely to open the files (and to open them quickly) than your own computer, and printing the materials from that location will be entirely free. Technicians are also nearby should you encounter any kind of problem.
As indicated in the table below, the participation grade is a substantial portion of your final grade — 20% — so keep up with the reading, response, and groupwork assignments and make your voice heard in class. The more actively you participate in the class discussions and other collaborative assignments, the more I can tailor the direction of course to your particular concerns and interests.
Responses, Homework, Groupwork, & Class Participation
Essay Exam I: Sections 1 & 2 (Mythology & Fairy Tales)
Essay Exam II: Sections 3 & 4 (Early Modern to Victorian Literature)
Essay Exam III: Section 5 (Contemporary Pop Culture & Literature)
Six-Page Critical Essay
Response/participation points accumulate over the course of the semester, serving as a barometer of your ongoing participation in the class. The most common assignments are in-class or homework responses (12 and 15 pts., respectively), notes from ad-hoc groupwork (15 pts.) or from meetings with your base group (25 pts.), the discussion question that you design with your base group (20 pts.), and the culminating presentation (40 pts.). I will also give credit for the outlines and essay questions that you construct for the exams (15 pts.), as well as for extra-credit responses or peer reviews of other students’ papers (12 pts.).
Nothing is more vital for success in this class than keeping up with, and actively engaging in, the reading assignments, collaborative groupwork, and class discussions. Make sure to bring a copy of each text that we will be discussing to class. You will have to have read the assigned material, and have it on hand, when you work on discussion or debate questions together with your peers. As with any university course, the homework will take around two hours for every unit of class, so you can expect to spend six hours each week completing the various assignments and readings.
There will be a significant number of writing assignments: intermittent but informal responses, three essay exams, and a short but polished critical essay. The primary difference between the responses and the essays is that with the responses, the mechanical elements of writing do not matter in the least, and the goal is to freely and openly express ideas; whereas, with the essays, the mechanical elements of writing must be attended to very thoroughly and the goal is to defend a focused argument clearly, coherently, and persuasively. The research essay, which will be six pages, may be on one of the materials covered in class, or it can be on something else if you talk with me and get permission in advance.
Guidelines on the semester-long collaborative groupwork project will be available in the Electronic Reserves (ER) and online (http://people.emich.edu/acoykenda/480/project.htm). All in all, the project entails reading and researching one of the course materials in advance, composing a series of discussion questions in cooperation with the peers in your group, and presenting the materials to the rest of the class. You will then serve as an in-house expert on the materials for the other groups that will consider your questions once the materials are actually assigned to the class as a whole.
In order to encourage critical thinking about the material, the exams will be question driven as well. Although there will be some true-false questions to ensure that you have read (and can recollect) the material, as well as a few short-answer questions on particular points of interest raised during the section, the bulk of the exam will consist of an essay question on a particular topic of your own choosing, a topic that you will have identified on your own in advance. In effect, you can write on anything that you like so long as you can cover a certain proportion of the material. You will be able refer to an outline during the exams, but not to the texts themselves.
The third exam, which covers less material, will be considerably less extensive than the other two exams. You will thus have more time to work on your critical essay, which is due by the end of the term.
Plagiarism is a very serious offense against the Code of Student Conduct. The general rule is that if you use three or more words of another writer in a row without enclosing those words in quotation marks and acknowledging your source, you are guilty of plagiarism. Turning in a paper that you wrote for another course for this course, i.e. recycling the same words for double credit, also constitutes academic dishonesty at EMU.
With the internet, plagiarism is easy and tempting to do; however, the internet also makes plagiarism that much more easy to catch and document, so do not even think about doing it in this class or elsewhere. Any cheating on the exams or plagiarized writing will automatically result in a failing, zero-percent grade for the assignment.
Because this course primarily consists of reading and discussion — rather than facts, figures, or memorization — attendance is crucial. My attendance policy is less harsh than that of the English department as a whole, which automatically fails students who miss more than two weeks of class. Instead, under my policy, after three absences (or, in other words, after missing three weeks of class), your grade will start being reduced dramatically, but not necessarily to a failing percentage if you have otherwise done well. You thus may be absent three times without penalty, but each absence after that will result in a reduction of your final grade by one letter grade: that is, the fourth class missed will turn a final grade of an A into a B; the fifth, into a C; and so on.
The three allowable absences are for emergencies, so if you ditch class three times, do not expect a reprieve from the rule if you become ill or have other extenuating circumstances towards the end of the semester. If there is a documented emergency (a death in the family, lost limb, prison term, &c.) at the end of the semester, I will go out of my way to help in any way I can, including giving an incomplete, supposing that you have otherwise kept up with the assignments, attended class regularly, and finished a majority of the course.
Aside from the grade reduction, missing classes will hinder your ability to do the assignments properly and promptly. We will do groupwork or in-class responses almost every class period, and if you are absent for one of those classes (or if you have not done the required reading), you will have to make up the missing work. These assignments will be more difficult, more time consuming, and much less interesting to do on your own.
If you are absent from class, contact a student from your base group to fill you in on missed information before contacting me. However, if you have fallen behind in the reading or have been absent for an extended amount of time, please feel free to come see me in my office hours so that I can help you to get you back on schedule.
There will be no official penalty for lateness. However, it can have several undesirable consequences: you may miss crucial information (such as the extension of a deadline) often covered in the first ten minutes of class, and of course you will likely distract other students and myself while entering the room. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have not been marked absent because you were absent at the beginning of the class when I normally take attendance. I cannot teach the class and keep track of incoming stragglers at the same time.
Section I: Cannibal Mythology
Week One: September 7
Introduce Class and Topic
Do Conjectural Response
Watch Surprise Film
Test Film with Conjectures
Week Two: September 14 40 pgs.
Hesiod, Theogony, Selections (4 pgs.)
Homer, Odyssey, Book IX (7 pgs.)
Old and New Testament, Selections (3 pgs.)
Artwork: Francisco de Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children (1824)
Fra Angelico, Last Judgment (1432-35)
Theorists: Freud, Totem and Taboo, Selections (20 pgs.)
Lévi-Straus, The Raw and the Cooked & Tristes Tropiques, Selections (6 pgs.)
Watch Film from Mythological/Theoretical Points of View: Silence of the Lambs (118 min.)
Section II: Animal and Monster Archetypes in Children’s Literature
Week Three: September 21 40 pgs.
Brothers Grimm, “Hansel and Gretel” (8 pgs.)
Charles Perrault, Little Red Riding Hood (4 pgs.)
Lewis Carroll, Chapt. I-II, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (9 pgs.)
Theorist: Benjamin, “Gloves,” One Way Street (1 pg.)
Coetzee, The Lives of the Animals, Selections Part I (18 pgs.)
Watch Film: Disney Adaptations (Only Portions, Time Permitting)
Week Four: September 28 46 pgs.
Lewis Carroll, Chapt. III-VIII, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (35 pgs.)
Theorists: Said, Orientalism, Selections (4 pgs.)
Coetzee, The Lives of the Animals, Selections Part II (7 pgs.)
Watch Film: Edward Said on Orientalism (40 min.)
Week Five: October 5 41 pgs.
Lewis Carroll, Chapt. IX-XII, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (25 pgs.)
Theorists: Nancy Armstrong, “Occidental Alice,” Selections (16 pgs.)
Watch Film: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (Only Portions, Time Permitting)
** Review for Exam One
Week Six: October 12
Theorist: Marx, “The Working-Day,” Das Capital (In-Class Selections)
Horkheimer & Adorno, “Enlightenment as Mass Deception” (In-Class Selections)
Watch Film: Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (100 min.)
Section III: The Colonial Context: Early Modern and Eighteenth-Century Literature
Week Seven: October 19 37 pgs.
Montaigne, “Of Cannibals,” Selections (1 pg.)
Shakespeare, The Tempest, Selections (1 pg.)
Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Part IV, Selections (18 pgs.)
— “Modest Proposal” (7 pgs.)
— Battle of the Books (In-Class Selection)
Artwork: America Awakens, Theodor Galle (1580)
Salvador Dali, La nostalgia del cannibale [Nostalgia of the cannibal] (1936)
Theorist: Elaine Shohat, “Tropes of Empire” (4 pgs.)
Kristeva, Powers of Horror, Selections (Optional Reading, 6 pgs.)
Week Eight: October 26 37 pgs.
Equiano, Ship Portion of Interesting Narrative (4 pgs.)
Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, Selections (20 pgs.)
Theorists: Elaine Shohat, “Renegade Voices” (Optional Reading, 3 pgs.)
Peter Hulme, “Robinson Crusoe and Friday” (7 pgs.)
Roxann Wheeler, “‘My Savage,’ ‘My Man’” (6 pgs.)
Watch Film: Adaptations of Robinson Crusoe
Section IV: Modernism & Picturesque Primitivism in Nineteenth-Century Literature
Week Nine: November 2 41 pgs.
Melville, Moby Dick, Selections (26 pgs.)
Dickens, “The Lost Arctic Voyagers,” Household Words (5 pgs.)
Theorist: Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather (10 pgs.)
Watch Film: Cannibal Tours (documentary on Western tourism as cannibalism)
Week Ten: November 9 41 pgs.
Conrad, Heart of Darkness, Selections (35 pgs.)
Theorists: Chinua Achebe on Conrad (6 pgs.)
** Review for Exam Two
Section V: The Postmodern Cannibal: From Social Revolution to Mass Consumption
Week Eleven: November 16
Theorist: Burke, Reflections on the Revolution (In-Class Selections)
Marx, Eighteenth Brumaire (In-Class Selections)
Jameson, “Cultural Logic” (In-Class Selections)
Watch Film: Dawn of the Dead
$ $ $ Thanksgiving Recess: November 23 $$$
Week Twelve: November 30 121 pgs.
Burroughs, Naked Lunch (115 pgs.)
Theorist: Jameson, “Cultural Logic” (6 pgs.)
Week Thirteen: December 7 47 pgs.
Burroughs, Naked Lunch (40 pgs.)
Theorist: Horkheimer and Adorno, “Enlightenment as Mass Deception” (7 pgs.)
Week Fourteen: December 14 46 pgs.
Burroughs, Naked Lunch (41 pgs.)
Theorist: Amiri Baraka, Blues People (3 pgs.)
** Review for Exam Three
Week Fifteen: December 21
Students can write their final paper on one the following texts if they prefer, or others relating to cannibalism if they give me advance notice:
Mario de Andrade, Macunaima
Oswald Andrade, “Cannibal Manifesto” (Anti-Imperialist, Latin Americanist Surrealist Manifesto)
Antonin Artaud, “The Man Suicided by Society” / Collected Works
Margaret Atwood, Edible Woman
Poppy Z. Brite, Exquisite Corpse
Edmund Burke, Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime & Beautiful
Angela Carter, The Bloody Chamber
Raymond Chandler, The Big Sleep
Wilkie Collins, The Moonstone
Maryse Condé, Histoire de la femme cannibale
Michael Crichton, Eaters of the Dead
William Diapea, Cannibal Jack: The True Autobiography of a White Man in the South Seas
Arthur Conan Doyle, Sign of Four
H. Rider Haggard, King Solomon’s Mines
Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God
Stephan King, Cujo
— The Shining
Elizabeth Kostova, The Historian
Andrew Lang, Jack and the Beanstalk
Herman Melville, Typee
Toni Morrison, Beloved
Edgar Allan Poe, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
Ann Rice, Interview with a Vampire
Marquis de Sade, 120 Days of Sodom
— Philosophy of the Bedroom
Maurice Sendak, Where the Wild Things Are
Shakespeare, The Tempest
Thomas Harris, Red Dragon
— Silence of the Lambs
Bram Stoker, Dracula
Jules Verne, 20,000 Thousand Leagues under the Sea
Lu Xun, “Diary of a Madman”
Students can also write their final paper on one the following films if they prefer, or others relating to cannibalism if they give me advance notice, supposing that they can find sufficiently academic research to support a thesis:
20,000 Thousand Leagues under the Sea, dir. Richard Fleischer
Alien series, dir. Ridley Scott
American History X, dir. Tony Kaye
American Psycho, dir. Mary Harron
The Big Sleep, dir. Howard Hawks
C.H.U.D. (“Cannibalistic Humanoid Underground Dwellers”), dir. Douglas Cheek
Cronos, dir. Guillermo del Toro
Cujo, dir. Lewis Teague
Delicatessen, dir. Gilles Adrien
Dracula, dir. Francis Ford Coppola / Wes Craven / Tod Browning
Eating Raoul, dir. Paul Bartel
The Exorcist, dir. William Friedkin
Fight Club, dir. David Fincher
Freeway, dir. Matthew Bright (contemporary adaptation of Little Red Riding Hood)
Frenzy, dir. Alfred Hitchcock (or any other of his more famous flicks)
Fried Green Tomatoes, dir. Jon Avnet
The Hunger, dir. Tony Scott
Interview with a Vampire, dir. Neil Jordan
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956), dir. Don Siegel
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978), dir. Philip Kaufman
Jack the Ripper, dir. Jess Franco
Jaws series, dir. Steven Spielberg
King Kong, dir. Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack
Living Dead series, dir. George Romero
No Blade of Grass, dir. Cornel Wilde
Parents, dir. Bob Balaban
Rocky Horror Picture Show, dir. Jim Sharman
Seven, dir. David Fincher
The Shining, dir. Stanley Kubrick
Silence of the Lambs, dir. Jonathan Demme
Soylent Green, dir. Richard Fleischer
The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, dir. Tobe Hooper
The Time Machine (2002, 1960)
The Yes Men, dir. Dan Ollman et. al.
Adams, Percy. Travelers and Travel Liars, 1660-1800. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.
Ames, Michael M. Cannibal Tours and Glass Boxes: The Anthropology of Museums. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992.
Andrade, Oswald de. “Cannibalist Manifesto.” 1928. Latin American Literary Review 19 (1991): 38-47.
Arens, W. Man Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Askenasy, Hans. Cannibalism: From Sacrifice to Survival. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1994.
Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, Margaret Iversen, Ed. Cannibalism and the Colonial World. New York: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Benedict, Ruth. “The Uses of Cannibalism.” An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. Margaret Mead. New York: Equinox, 1959. 44-48.
Brown, Laura. Limits of the Human. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003.
Brown, Paula, and Doanld Tuzin, eds. The Ethnography of Cannibalism. Washington, DC: Society for Psychological Anthropology, 1983.
Bruner, Edward M. “Of Cannibals, Tourists, and Ethnographers.” Cultural Anthropology 4 (1989): 439-46.
Celestin, Roger. “Montaigne and the Cannibals: Toward a Redefinition of Exoticism.” Cultural Anthropology 5 (1990): 292-13.
Clair, Sarah. La cannibale. Paris: Flammarion, 1980.
Clemmer, Richard O. “Ideology and Identity: Western Shoshoni ‘Cannibal’ Myth as Ethnonational Narrative.” Journal of Anthropological Research 52 (1996): 207-23.
Clifford, James. The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1988.
Conklin, Beth A. “‘Thus are our Bodies, Thus was our Custom’: Mortuary Cannibalism in an Amazonian Society.” American Ethnologist 22 (1995): 75-101.
—— . “Consuming Images: Representations of Cannibalism on the Amazonian Frontier.” Anthropological Quarterly 70 (1997): 68-77.
Cottom, Daniel. Cannibals and Philosophers: Bodies of Enlightenment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Fiddes, Nick. Meat, a Natural Symbol. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Forbes, Jack. Columbus and Other Cannibals: The Wétiko Disease of Exploitation, Imperialism and Terrorism. New York: Autonomedia, 1992.
Forsyth, D. W. “The Beginnings of Brazilian Anthropology: The Jesuits and Tupinamba Cannibalism.” Journal of Anthropological Research 39 (1983): 147-78.
Fuss, Diana. “Monsters of Perversion: Jeffrey Dahmer and The Silence of the Lambs.” Media Spectacles. Ed. Marjorie B. Garber, Jann Matlock, and Rebecca Walkowitz. New York: Routledge, 1993. 181-205.
Girard, René. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1994.
Guest, Kristen, Ed. Eating Their Words: Cannibalism and the Boundaries of Cultural Identiy. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.
Halberstam, Judith. “Skinflick: Posthuman Gender in Jonathan Demme’s The Silence of the Lambs.” Skin Shows: Gothic Horror and the Technology of Monsters. Durham: Duke UP, 1995. 161-77.
Harris, Marvin. Cannibals and Kings. New York: Vintage, 1978.
—— . Good to Eat. New York: Vintage, 1985.
hooks, bell. “Eating the Other.” Back Looks: Race and Representations. Boston: South End, 1992. 21-39.
Johnson, Norris Brock. “Cannibals and Culture: The Anthropology of Michel de Montaigne.” Dialectical Anthropology 18 (1993): 153-76.
Kilgour, Maggie, From Communion to Cannibalism: An Anatomy of Metaphors of Incorporation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.
King, C. Richard. “The (Mis)uses of Cannibalism in Contemporary Cultural Critique.” Diacritics 30.1 (Spring 2000): 106-123.
Lestringant, Frank. Cannibals: The Discovery and Representation of the Cannibal from Columbus to Jules Verne. Trans. Rosemary Morris. Berkeley: U of California P, 1997.
Lestringant, Frank. Le cannibale: grandeur et decadence. Paris: Perrin, 1994.
MacCannell, Dean. “Cannibalism Today.” Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers. New York: Routledge. 1992. 17-73.
Malinowski, Brownislaw. Introduction. The Savage Hits Back. By Julius E. Lips. New Haven: Yale UP, 1937. vii-ix.
Morris, Rosalind C. “Anthropology in the Body Shop: Lords of the Garden, Cannibalism, and the Consuming Desires of Televisual Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 98 (1996): 137-50.
Neill, Anna. British Discovery Literature and the Rise of Global Commerce. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Nyamnjoh, Francis B. “Cannibal Transformations: Colonialism and commodification in the Sierra Leone Hinterland.” Magical Interpretations, Material Realities: Modernity, Witchcraft and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa. Ed. Henrietta L. Moore and Todd Sanders.
O’Rourke, Dennis. Cannibal Tours. Los Angeles: Direct Cinema, 1987.
Osborne, Lawrence. “Does Man Eat Man? Inside the Great Cannibalism Controversy.” Lingua Franca April/May 1997: 28-34+.
Piersen, William D. Black Legacy: America’s Hidden Heritage. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1993.
Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. Ed. Gail Weiss and Honi Fern Haber. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Ramos, Alcida. “From Eden to Limbo: The Construction of Indigenism in Brazil.” Social Construction of the Past: Representation as Power. Ed. George C. Bond and Angela Gilliam. New York: Routledge, 1994. 74-88.
Root, Deborah. Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, and the Commodification of Difference. Boulder: Westeview, 1996.
Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Divine Hunger: Cannibalism as a Cultural System. New York: Cambridge UP, 1986.
Sands, Peter. “‘A Horrid Banquet’: Cannibalism, Native Americans, and the Fictions of National Formation.” Diss. Binghamton U, 1996.
Seltzer, Mark. “Serial killers I.” differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. 5.1 (Spring 1993): 92-129.
—— . “Serial Killers II: The Pathological Public Sphere.” Critical Inquiry 22.1 (Autumn 1995): 122-49.
Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Peter Stallybrass and Allon White. “Bourgeois Hysteria and the Carnivalesque.” The Cultural Studies Reader. Ed. Simon During. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Stam, Robert. Subversive Pleasures: Bakhtin, Cultural Criticism, and Film. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1989.
Stoler, Ann Laura. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Stone, Harry. The Night Side of Dickens: Cannibalism, Passion, Necessity. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1994.
Tompkins, Jane. “At the Buffalo Bill Museum — June 1988.” South Atlantic Quarterly 89 (1990): 525-45.
Zwinger, Lynda. “Blood Relations: Feminist Theory Meets the Uncanny Alien Bug Mother.” Hypatia 7.2 (Spring 1992): 74-90.
Weismantel, Mary. “White Cannibals: Fantasies of Racial Violence in the Andes.” Identities 4 (1997): 9-43.
Wilson, Kathleen. The Island Race. New York: Routledge, 2002.