| Foreign Control: Egyptian and British
In 1820, Northern Sudan came under Egyptian rule when Ali, the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, sent armies led by his son Ismail Pasha Mehemetand Mahommed Bey to conquer eastern Sudan. The Egyptians developed Sudan’s trade in ivory and slaves.
Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt from 1863-1879, tried to extend Egyptian influence south to end the slave trade. This led to a revolt led by religious leader Muhammad ibn Abdalla, the self-proclaimed Mahdi (Messiah), who sought to purify Islam in Sudan. He led a nationalist revolt against Egyptian rule culminating in the fall of Khartoum in 1885. The revolt was successful and Egypt abandoned Sudan, and the resulting state was a theocratic Mahdist state.In the 1890s the British sought to gain control of Sudan. Lord Kitchener led military campaigns from 1896-98. An agreement was reached in 1899
|Flag of UK|
|Flag of Egypt|
establishing Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, under which Sudan was run by a governer-general appointed by Egypt with British consent. In reality, Sudan was a colony of Great Britain.
From 1924, until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate colonies, the south and the north.
The flag reflects the Pan-Arab colours which was first adopted by Syria in March 1920, and last by Sudan which officially hoisted it on the 20th May 1970 .
RED: The red colour stands for the struggles and for martyrs in the Sudan and the great Arab land.
WHITE: The white colour stands for peace, optimism, light and love.
BLACK: The black colour symbolizes the Sudan and the mahdija revolution during which a black flag was used.
GREEN: The green colour represents and symbolizes Islamic prosperity and agriculture.