This web site is an educational, non-profit site for the use of students and others interested in Russian history and culture. No commercial use may be made of it. The text of Alexander II and His Times and photos taken by me are copyrighted. The accuracy of the text is my sole responsibility, but the text of some of the links offer varying viewpoints with which I do not always agree.

Most of the linked images located in my own directory were either taken by me or scanned from materials I believed to be uncopyrighted.  With the exception of a few Geneva color images taken from old non-copyrighted postcards, all others in color in my directory are my own photos, as is the black and white photo of the Russian Senate; all other black and white materials were scanned from books.  I am especially indebted to the Anthroposophic Press, publisher of a number of books by Vladimir Soloviev and other Russian philosophers, for allowing me to reproduce photos of the Soloviev family and Elder Ambrose as found in Paul Allen's Vladimir Soloviev: Russian Mystic (1978).

Although copyright provisions, including the "fair use" concept and the use of pre-1973 Russian materials (the USSR  signed the International Copyright Convention in 1973), are murky, to the best of my knowledge I am not violating any copyright regulations, especially since this is an educational, non-commercial site. If I become convinced that any violation has inadvertently occurred, I will seek permission or remove any offending material from the site. Furthermore, anyone using links that I have provided or materials that I have scanned and believe to be in the public domain does so at their own risk, and under no circumstances shall I legally be held responsible for their use by others.

Many linked images are located at university or other educational sites such as


Where I have relied heavily on such links, I have notified those responsible of my intention to create multiple links to their sites and am very grateful for their willingness to allow such linkage. I will make every effort to keep the URLs of the links current and would appreciate any suggestions for added or improved links.  I also am indebted to others who have prepared extensive online sites dealing with Russia and have generously taken time to share their knowledge, especially Benjamin Sher and his wonderful Russian Index. Dan Waugh has not only taken many of the pictures I have linked to at The University of Washington's The Cities/Buildings Archive, but also has an excellent web site of his own on Medieval and Early Modern Russia and Ukraine, and Marshall Poe provided the valuable Russian History on the Web (no longer available) and encouraged online publications dealing with Russian history. At Eastern Michigan University, Arnold Barr, Bob Ferrett and his staff, Michael Sheppard, Jessie Villeges, and especially Keith Stanger, all provided technical advice which enabled me to create this site, but bear no responsibility for its many technical shortcomings.