PRINCIPAL FIGURES AND FAMILIES*


Alexander II (1818-1881), Emperor and Tsar of Russia, 1855-1881.

Empress Maria (1824-1880), wife of Alexander II.

Alexander III (1845-1894), son of Alexander II and Maria.

Maria (1853-1920), daughter of Alexander II and Maria, became Duchess of Edinburgh in 1874.

Catherine Dolgorukova (Katia) (1847-1922), longtime mistress and second wife of Alexander II.


Bakunin, Michael A. (1814-1876), leading radical figure.

Antonia, his wife.

Antonia has a few children while married to Bakunin, but he is not the father of them.

Several of Bakunin's brothers were involved in liberal political activities in the Tver province.


Dostoevsky, Fedor M. (1821-1881), writer.

Maria Isaeva (1826?-1864), first wife of Dostoevsky.

Anna Snitkina (1846-1918), second wife of Dostoevsky, with whom he had four children, but two die as infants, Sonia in 1868 and Alyosha in 1878.


The Herzen and Ogarev families.

The Herzens:

Alexander (1812-1870), radical journalist; editor of The Bell.

Natalia (1817-1852), his wife.

Alexander (Sasha) (1839-1906), their son.

Natalia (Tata) (1844-1936), their daughter.

Olga (1850-1953), their second daughter.

In addition, the Herzens had two other sons, the first died when still a young boy in 1851, the second shortly after his birth in 1852.

The Ogarevs:
Nicholas P. (1813-1877), poet, radical journalist, friend and co-editor with Herzen of The Bell.

Maria (d. 1853), his first wife.

Natalia (1829-1923), second wife and Herzen's mistress from 1857.
 

Children of Alexander Herzen and Natalia Ogareva:
Liza (1858-1875)

Elena (1861-1864)

Alexei (1861-1864)


The Muraviev clan:

Michael N. (1796-1866), Governor-general of Lithuania, 1863-1865, the "hangman."

Nicholas N. Muraviev-Amursky (1809-1881), Governor-general of Eastern Siberia, 1847-1861, a distant relative of Michael N.

Nicholas V. (1850-1908), nephew of Muraviev-Amursky, public prosecutor in St. Petersburg at the time of death of Alexander II.

Bakunin's mother, several Decembrists, and many distinguished officials and high-ranking officers were also Muravievs.

Nekrasov, Nicholas A. (1821-1877), radical poet and editor of The Contemporary.

The Perovskys:
 

Lev N. (1816-1890), civilian governor of St. Petersburg province in the mid 1860's.

Barbara, wife of Lev.

Peter N. (1818-1865), Russian negotiator in Peking, 1858-1859, brother of Lev.

Sophia L. (1853-1881), one of four children of Lev and Barbara, a leading member of People's Will.

The uncles of Lev and Peter, Vasily A. and Lev A., both held important government posts under Nicholas I. The mother of the poet Alexei Tolstoy was a sister of these uncles.


The Solovievs:

Sergei M.(1820-1879), distinguished historian, professor, and administrator at Moscow University.

Poliksena Romanova, wife of Sergei and daughter of Vladimir Romanov (1796- 1864), a naval hero at Sevastopol.

Vladimir S. (1853-1900), son of Sergei and Poliksena; philosopher, poet, mystic.

Of the other seven Soloviev children who lived to adulthood, several had distinguished careers; Vladimir's older brother, Vsevolod, was a popular historical novelist and his youngest sister, Poliksena, became a fine poet.


The Tolstoys:
 

Leo N. (1828-1910), writer.

Maria (1830-1912), sister of Leo, briefly infatuated with Turgenev.

Sonia Bers (1844-1919), Leo's wife.

Leo and Sonia had thirteen children, ten of them born during the reign of Alexander II. Of these ten, three died by the age of two.The Tolstoys were a distinguished family related to a number of other famous Russian families, including different branches of Tolstoys, and the Volkonskys, Trubetskoys, and Gorchakovs.

Turgenev, Ivan S. (1818-1883), writer.

    Paulinette (1842-1919), illegitimate daughter of Turgenev.

*A note on Russian names: female last names often vary slightly from their male counterparts and most frequently end in "a"; thus Natalia Ogareva instead of Ogarev.
 


OTHER INVIDIDUALS

Abaza, Alexander A. (1821-1895), Minister of Finance, 1880-1881.

Aksakov, Constantine S. (1817-1860), historian, Slavophile.

Aksakov, Ivan S. (1823-1886), journalist, Slavophile.

Baryatinsky, Prince Alexander I. (1814-1879), Viceroy of the Caucasus, 1856-1862.

Belinsky, Vissarion G. (1811-1848), famous literary critic.

Bismarck, Prince Otto Von (1815-1898), Minister-president of Prussia, Chancellor of Germany.

Chaikovsky, Nicholas V. (1850-1926), populist leader of radical Chaikovsky circle.

Chernyshevsky, Nicholas G. (1828-1889), radical journalist.

Chicherin, Boris N. (1828-1904), historian, legal scholar, publicist.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804-1881), novelist and British Prime Minister, 1868, and again from 1874-1880.

Dobrolyubov, Nicholas A. (1836-1861), radical literary critic.

Dolgorukaya, Alexandra S. (1836-1913? ), lady-in-waiting to the Empress; rumors linked her romantically with Alexander II prior to his affair with Catherine Dolgorukova. Also the rumored prototype for Irena in Turgenev's Smoke.

Fadeev, General Rostislav A. (1824-1883), leading panslavist.

Fet-Shenshin, Afanasy A. (1820-1892), poet, friend of Tolstoy and Turgenev.

Filaret (1782-1867), Metropolitan of Moscow.

Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807-1882), fighter for Italian unity.

Gorchakov, Prince Alexander M. (1798-1883), Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1856-1882.

Ignatiev, Count Nicholas P. (1832-1908), diplomat and statesman.

Karakozov, Dmitry V. (1840-1866), terrorist who attempts to assassinate Alexander II.

Katkov, Michael N. (1818-1887), influential journalist and editor.

Kavelin, Constantine D. (1818-1885), historian, legal scholar, publicist.

Kramskoi, Ivan (1837-1887), painter

Kropotkin, Prince Peter A. (1842-1921), radical populist, later a leading theorist of anarchism.

Lavrov, Peter L. (1823-1900), theorist of revolutionary populism.

Loris-Melikov, General Michael T. (1825-1888), Minister of Internal Affairs, 1880-1881.

Milyutin, Count Dmitry A. (1816-1912), Minister of War, 1861-1881.

Mussorgsky, Modest P. (1839-1881), composer.

Napoleon III (1808-1873), Emperor of France, 1852-1870.

Nechaev, Sergei G. (1847-1882), nihilist who murdered student Ivanov.

Nikitenko, Alexander V. (1804-1877), moderate government official, professor of literature, diarist.

Panaev, Ivan I. (1812-1862), friend and co-editor of Nekrasov.

Panaeva, Avdotya Y. (1819-1893), wife of above and longtime lover of Nekrasov.

Petrashevsky, Mikhail V. (1821-1866), minor government official, coordinator of Petrashevsky circle.

Pisarev, Dmitry I. (1840-1868), journalist, literary critic, major theoretician of nihilism.

Pobedonostsev, Constantine P. (1827-1907), conservative tutor and adviser to Alexander III.

Poggio, Alessandro (1798-1873), Decembrist.

Pogodin, Michael P. (1800-1875), nationalist historian, panslavist.

Pushkin, Alexander, S. (1799-1837), Russia's most acclaimed poet.

Repin, Ilya E.(1844-1930), painter.

Reutern, Count Michael K. (1820-1890), Minister of Finance, 1862-1878.

Rubinstein, Nicholas G. (1835-1881), pianist, conductor.

Ryleev, Kondraty F. (1795-1826), poet, Decembrist.

Savina, Maria G. (1854-1915), actress, friend of Turgenev.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788-1860), German philosopher.

Shamil (1797-1871), Caucasian Muslim leader in the struggle for independence.

Shuvalov, Count Peter A. (1827-1889), head of the Third Division, 1866-1874.

Strakhov, Nicholas N. (1828-1896), literary critic.

Suslova, Appolinaria P. (1839-1917?), aspiring writer with whom Dostoevsky had an affair.

Tchaikovsky, Peter I. (1840-1893), composer.

Tolstaya, Countess Sophia A. (1844-1892), friend and patroness of writers, widow of poet Alexei Tolstoy (1817-1875).

Tolstoy, Count Dmitry A. (1823-1889), Minister of Education, 1866-80.

Totleben, Count Edward I. (1818-1884), general, military engineer.

Trepov, Fedor F. (1812-1889), police chief in St. Petersburg, 1866-1878.

Tyutcheva, Anna F. (1829-1889), lady-in-waiting to Empress Maria, married Ivan Aksakov in 1866.

Valuev, Count Peter A. (1814-1890), Minister of Internal Affairs, 1861-1868.

Viardot, Pauline (1821-1910), opera singer and beloved friend of Turgenev.

Victoria, (1819-1901), Queen of England, 1837-1901.

Volkonskaya, Princess Maria N. (1805-1863), wife of Decembrist.

Volkonsky, Prince Sergei G. (1788-1865), Decembrist.

William I (1797-1888), King of Prussia, 1861-1888, Emperor of Germany, 1871- 1888.

Zasulich, Vera I. (1851-1919), revolutionary.

Zhelyabov, Andrei I. (1850-1881), revolutionary; one of the leaders of the People's Will.



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