(See Bibliography for full references)

The most valuable primary source for Alexander II in chapters 1, 3, and 6 was the diary of A. Tyutcheva, one of the Empress's ladies-in-waiting. The correspondence between the Tsar and his brother Constantine and the latter's diary are valuable for the years 1857-1861 (see 1857-1861 . . . ). For Alexander's relations with Catherine (Katia) Dolgorukova, Tarsaidzé was most helpful. Many of the Tsar's letters to her and a few of hers to him are reproduced there. Alexander's trips to Paris (Chapter 20) and to London (Chapter 24) were reported on in detail in The Times (London), and Van der Kiste also describes the trip to London, as well as British-Russian royal relations in general. The diaries of two of the Tsar's ministers, Valuev and D. Milyutin, proved useful, the first for the period 1861-1876, the second for the years 1873-1881. The principal biographies of Alexander which I used were those of Almendingen, Lyashenko, Mosse (1), Pereria, and Tatishchev. Zakharova (1) and (2) were also helpful. Zaionchkovsky (2) and (3) were excellent sources for the last several years of Alexander II's reign and the first month of Alexander III's, and the Eklof, Bushnell, and Zakharova collection, Lincoln (2), Rieber (1) and (2), and Wortman's second volume of  Scenarios of Power offer useful interpretations of Alexander II's policies.

The daily activities of Tolstoy are chronicled in Gusev (1) and fleshed out in more detail in Gusev (2). Chronological listings of events in the lives of Dostoevsky, Herzen, Nekrasov, and Turgenev are in Grossman (2), Egorov, Ashukin, and Kleman respectively. The letters and other writings of all five writers provided valuable material. Since numerous translations of some of those works exist, I have listed in the bibliography only those of which I have made direct use. Tolstoy's diaries in Tolstoy (2) and those of his wife are also useful. Birukoff's work on Tolstoy contains much material (and some good photos) on Tolstoy up until the early 1860s. For the chapters dealing with the Dostoevskys between 1866 and 1868, I relied heavily on the diaries and reminiscences of Dostoevsky's second wife, Anna. In addition to the English translations of her works listed in the bibliography, her untranslated Geneva diary, reproduced in Literaturnoe nasledstvo, Vol. 86, also contains important remembrances, including some of the months she worked with Dostoevsky before their marriage. The reminiscences of Dostoevsky's friend Wrangel are helpful for some of the novelist's Semipalatinsk years. Secondary works in English on Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and Turgenev are plentiful, and I have listed in the bibliography only those that were most useful. Of those listed, Frank's multi-volume biography of Dostoevsky was especially helpful. N. A. Nekrasov. . . contains valuable first hand accounts of the editor and poet, and the works by Chukovsky, Peppard, and Zhdanov are all useful secondary sources on him. The remembrances of Fet and Panaeva provided additional material, especially on the interrelationships of Nekrasov, Tolstoy, and Turgenev. Levitt's book on the Pushkin Celebration is a thorough study of its political significance and the role of Dostoevsky and Turgenev in the celebration.

For Sergei Soloviev, his memoirs (Zapiski), Illeritsky, and several articles on him by Klyuchevsky were most helpful. Nikolai Tsimbaev's biography is also a solid work, but I consulted it only after completing the chapters on Soloviev. Information on his father-in-law, Vladimir Romanov, was found in Russkii biographicheskii slovar, Vol. 17. For Vladimir Soloviev and his family and life up to the mid 1870s, Lukyanov (1) and (2) were invaluable. The recollections of Bezobrazova and Eltsova, as well as the philosopher's own letters and works, provided additional information. I also benefited from the biographical studies of Mochulsky, Soloviev's nephew (S.M. Soloviev), and Stremoukhoff. Kostalevsky's work on Dostoevsky and Vladimir Soloviev is a good recent examination of the ideas and relationship of the two men.

For Bakunin I relied on Bakunin (1) and (2), Carr (1), Dolzhikov, Kelly (1), and Mendel; for Muraviev-Amursky on Ivan Barsukov and Sullivan; for Herzen on Acton (1), Carr (2), and Herzen (1), (2), and (3), the last of which contain his letters, as well as other writings. Some valuable information on Herzen and Ogarev can also be found in Literaturnoe nasledstvo, Vols. 39-40, 41-42, and 61 and in Confino, which contains translations of many valuable letters of the Herzens, Bakunin, Ogarev, and Nechaev. Zimmerman provides good background material on Herzen for the years 1847-1852. An interesting, but at times misleading, memoir is that of Ogarev's second wife, Natalia Tuchkova-Ogareva.

On Peter Perovsky and Igantiev in Peking, Quested was most valuable. On Lev Perovsky and his revolutionary daughter, Sophia, I used primarily the memoirs of Sophia's brother Vasily, the biography of Segal, and remembrances of her by her fellow revolutionaries in "Narodnaya volya". . ., Kropotkin, and Stepniak (2).

On public opinion in Russia, Kornilov (2) and Nikitenko were most useful. I discovered Bassin's valuable book Imperial Visions (1999) only after completing earlier versions of my work, but made some minor revisions as a result.  Kelly (2) offers valuable insights on various important figures including Chicherin, Dostoevsky, Herzen, Tolstoy, and Turgenev.  On the revolutionary movement in Russia, Footman, Gleason, Hardy, Pomper (1), Ulam, Venturi, and Yarmolinsky (1) were all helpful.  For Chrenyshevsky, Woehrlin was most valuable and for Nechaev, Pomper (2).

For descriptions of the various cities and other locales mentioned in the book, I used a wide variety of nineteenth century and modern day sources, including old Baedeker and Murray guidebooks. I have listed only a few of these in the bibliography. Among them, Bater's book on St. Petersburg deserves special mention because of its thoroughness. Visits to most of these places, including estates such as those of Tolstoy and Nekrasov and resort towns such as Baden-Baden and Bad Ems, have also, I hope, enabled me to describe them more accurately. 

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